Tradesmen in countries such as Germany are required to fulfil a formal apprenticeship (usually three years) to work as a professional carpenter. Upon graduation from the apprenticeship, he or she is known as a journeyman carpenter. Up through the 19th and even the early 20th century, the journeyman travelled to another region of the country to learn the building styles and techniques of that area before (usually) returning home. In Germany, this tradition of travelling carpenters has survived the 20th century on a small
level (also done by bricklayers, roofers and other traditional crafts) and is experiencing growing popularity again in the early 21st century. In modern times, journeymen are not required to travel, and the term refers more to a level of proficiency and skill. Union carpenters in the United States are required to pass a skills test to be granted official journeyman status, but uncertified professional carpenters may be known as journeymen based on their skill level, years of experience, or simply because they support themselves in the trade, and not due to certification or formal woodworking education.
After working as a journeyman for a specified period, a carpenter may go to study or test as a master carpenter. In some countries, such as Germany or Japan, this is an arduous and expensive process, requiring extensive knowledge (including economic and legal knowledge) and skill to achieve master certification; these countries generally require master status for anyone employing and teaching apprentices in the craft. In others, it can be a loosely used term to describe a skilled carpenter.
In the modern British construction industry carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where GCSEs in Maths, English and Technology help, but are not essential. This is deemed as the preferred route as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification. Fully trained carpenters and joiners will often move into related trades such as shop fitting, frameworking, bench joinery, and maintenance and system installation. A rough carpenter is one who does rough carpentry; that is, framing, formwork, roofing, and other structural or other large-scale work that need not be finely joined or polished in appearance.
A joister is a carpenter that puts in the floor joists. Floor joists are the horizontal boards connected to the frame of a structure at the level just below the floor. They give the floor strength for holding weight. Also they give a position to fasten the floor to. Joisters also put on the joists for the decks of a building. Joisters need good balance to install the beams and joists on buildings considering the elevation involved. A finish carpenter (North America) or joiner (traditional name now obsolete in North America) is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. Some large-scale construction may be of an exactitude and artistry that it is classed as finish carpentry.
A trim carpenter specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window casings, mantles, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work. Cabinet installers are also referred to as trim carpenters. A cabinetmaker is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work, specializing in the making of cabinets, wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage. A ship's carpenter specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and repair techniques (see also shipwright) and carpentry specific to nautical needs; usually the term refers to a carpenter who has a post on a specific ship. Steel warships as well as wooden ones need ship's carpenters, especially for making emergency repairs in the case of battle or storm damage.
A carpenter in film-making, TV, and the theater builds and dismantles temporary structures and sets for the production of these entertainments. A framer builds the skeletal structure or framework of buildings. Techniques include platform framing, balloon framing, or timber framing (which may be post-and-beam or mortise-and-tenon framing). A roofer specializes in roof construction, concentrating on rafters, beams, and trusses. Naturally, a roofer must not be scared of heights and have good balance as well as carpentry skills. In Australia this type of carpenter is called a roof carpenter and in that country a roofer is someone who puts on the roof cladding (shingles, tiles, tin, etc.) A formwork carpenter creates the shuttering and false work used in concrete construction.