History of bathrooms
Although it was not with hygiene in mind, the first records for the use of baths date back as far as 3000 B.C. At this time water had a strong religious value, being seen as a purifying element for both body and soul, and so it was not uncommon for people to be required to cleanse themselves before entering a sacred area. Baths are recorded as part of a village or town life throughout this period, with a split between steam baths in Europe and America and cold baths in Asia. Communal baths were erected in a distinctly separate area to the living quarters of the village, with a view to preventing evil spirits from entering the domestic quarters of a commune.
Not all ancient baths were in the style of the large pools that often come to mind when one imagines the Roman baths; the first surviving bathtub dates back to 1700 B.C., and hails from the Palace of Knossos in Crete. What is remarkable about this tub is not only the similarity with the baths of today, but also the way in which the plumbing works surrounding it differ so little from modern models.
Both the Greeks and the Romans recognised the value of bathing as an important part of their lifestyles. Writers such as Homer had their heroes bathe in warm water so as to regain their strength; it is perhaps notable that the mother of Achilles bathed him in order to gain his invincibility. Palaces have been uncovered throughout Greece with areas that are dedicated to bathing, spaces with clay bathtubs, as well as sophisticated drainage systems.
The Roman attitudes towards bathing are well documented; they built large purpose-built thermal baths, marking not only an important social development, but also providing a public source of relaxation and rejuvenation. Here was a place where people could meet to discuss the matters of the day and enjoy entertainment. During this period there was a distinction between private and public baths, with many wealthy families having their own thermal baths in their houses. Despite this they still made use of the public baths, showing the value that they had as a public institution. The strength of the Roman Empire was telling in this respect; imports from throughout the world allowed the Roman citizens to enjoy ointments, incense, combs, and mirrors.
Although some sources suggest that bathing declined following the collapse of the Roman Empire, this is not completely accurate. It was actually the Middle Ages that saw the beginning of soap production, proof that bathing was definitely not uncommon. It was only after the Renaissance that bathing declined; water was feared as a carrier of disease, and thus sweat baths and heavy perfumes were preferred.
In fact throughout the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, the use of public baths declined gradually, and private spaces were favoured, thus laying the foundations for the bathroom, as it was to become, in the 20th century
In the United States, "bathroom" commonly means "a room containing a toilet". In other countries this is usually called the "toilet" or alternatively "water closet" (WC), lavatory or "loo". In America they are categorized as a "full bathroom", containing four plumbing fixtures: bathtub, shower, toilet, and sink; "half (1/2) bath" (or "powder room") containing just a toilet and sink; and "3/4 bath" containing toilet, sink, and shower. The word is also used in the U.S. for a public toilet.
Types of bathrooms
A bathroom directly connected to a bedroom is often called an en-suite bathroom. Its use is primarily intended for the occupants of that bedroom only. In French the term "en-suite" literally means "a following", in this case referring to the bathroom being part of the bedroom to which it is attached. A bathroom adjacent to or directly connected to a master bedroom in a private home is generally called a master bathroom, unless it is shared by other bedrooms or is the only bathroom in the home. An en-suite bathroom attached to two bedrooms is sometimes referred to as a "Jack and Jill bathroom".
Travelers often get confused regarding different types of bathrooms when booking rooms in hotels and bed and breakfast accommodation. Some common questions relate to en-suite, "private" and "shared" bathrooms (sometimes called "facilities"). Both en-suite and private bathrooms are for the exclusive use of the occupants of a particular bedroom. An en-suite bathroom is accessed from within the bedroom, however, whereas a private bathroom is accessed from outside the bedroom but is normally adjacent or near to the bedroom. A shared bathroom is a bathroom outside of any bedroom that is shared between guests staying in two or more separate bedrooms. Although the word bathroom may be used, this can refer to a room with a shower rather than a bath. The bathroom would also normally include a toilet as well as washing facilities.
The design of a bathroom must account for the use of both hot and cold water, in significant quantities, for cleaning the human body. The water is also used for moving solid and liquid human waste to a sewer or septic tank. Water may be splashed on the walls and floor, and hot humid air may cause condensation on cold surfaces. From a decorating point of view the bathroom presents a challenge. Ceiling, wall and floor materials and coverings should be impervious to water and readily and easily cleaned. The use of ceramic or glass, as well as smooth plastic materials, is common in bathrooms for their ease of cleaning. Such surfaces are often cold to the touch, however, and so water-resistant bath mats or even bathroom carpets may be used on the floor to make the room more comfortable. Alternatively, the floor may be heated, possibly by strategically placing heater conduits close to the surface.
Electrical appliances, such as lights, heaters, and heated towel rails, generally need to be installed as fixtures, with permanent connections rather than plugs and sockets. This minimizes the risk of electric shock. Ground-fault circuit interruptor electrical sockets can reduce the risk of electric shock, and are required for bathroom socket installation by electrical and building codes in the United States and Canada. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, only special sockets suitable for electric shavers are permitted in bathrooms, and are labelled as such.
On the decorating front, bathrooms may be considered by some owners to be of value only because of their utility and they may be reluctant to decorate or redecorate to "freshen" tired decor or to suit their tastes; others like to decorate their bathrooms, however.
Color is a key factor; the use of colors can alter the mood of any room and even make it look bigger. The bathroom is no different. It is sometimes suggested that bathrooms be painted in light, "cool" colors as a bathroom is a wet room and water is the predominant element. Many owners use watery elements across the bathroom, such as cloud or wave patterns across the tiles and the ceiling. Patterned wallpaper with blue or green as the predominant color is also common.
Another remodeling idea is changing the lighting, as it accentuates objects in the room. For bathrooms it is advisable to have overhead or ceiling ambience lights which could optionally be fitted with dimness regulator; one might also add spot or task lights on the mirror. Installing bathroom mirrors opposite each other can make the room appear larger when combined with the right lighting. Bathroom cabinets, vanity units, and countertops with shiny, reflective surfaces can also brighten the room.